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MILLENNIUM OBJECTIVES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, NEW APPROACH AND CHALLENGES.

Dear, I am sending you a work of my own on sustainable development, I hope you like it. Cordial greetings and thanks for the space always.

MILLENNIUM OBJECTIVES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, NEW APPROACH AND CHALLENGES.


AUTHOR: ROMINA FLORENCIA CABRERA. FACULTY OF LEGAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES OF THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LA PLATA.

1. INTRODUCTION:
The Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations are eight goals that the 193 Member States of the United Nations agreed to try to achieve for the development of the future of the Global Community.

The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits world leaders to fight against poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women. The MDGs have specific goals and indicators, according to WHO.
"Sustainable development is defined as the satisfaction of" the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs ". (Report entitled "Our Common Future", 1987, World Commission on Environment and Development), sustainable development has emerged as the guiding principle for long-term global development. It consists of three pillars, sustainable development seeks to achieve, in a balanced way, economic development, social development and environmental protection.
In 1992, the international community met in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to discuss ways to implement sustainable development. During the so-called Rio Earth Summit, world leaders adopted Agenda 21, with specific action plans for achieving sustainable development at the national, regional and international levels. This was followed in 2002 by the World Summit on Sustainable Development, which adopted the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. The Implementation Plan was based on the progress made and the lessons learned since the Earth Summit, and provides for a more specific approach, with concrete measures and quantifiable targets and deadlines and targets.


2-DEVELOPMENT

1-CURRENT STATUS
The adoption of Agenda 2030 marks an unprecedented commitment on the part of the international community to take action at all levels and across borders to respond to global challenges and direct resources towards a socially and environmentally sustainable and resilient development path. The pillars of the Agenda - the Sustainable Development Goals (ODS), the Sendai Framework for Action, the Addis Ababa Agenda for Action and the New Urban Agenda - provide a coherent, coherent and holistic framework.

The challenge of translating the framework into action on the ground is for all UN member states, as well as the business community, civil society and all stakeholders. Success will depend on appropriate policies and strategies, in each sector and at each level. Fundamentally, we need practical and reproducible means of implementing the program and measuring our collective progress.

This is where voluntary standards - which use simple and agreed indicators and a familiar language and format for businesses, local governments and communities around the world - can be a key resource.

There is a wide range of standards that are already related to goals such as Zero Hunger (SDG 2), good health and well-being (SDG 3), drinking water and sanitation (SDG 6), clean and affordable energy Climate action (SDG 13). ISO 26000 - Guidance on social responsibility - also provides a general guideline for companies and organizations to operate in a way that promotes sustainable development in a holistic way.


2-SENDAI ACTION FRAMEWORK.
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 was adopted at the third United Nations World Conference in Sendai, Japan, on 18 March 2015. This is the result of a series of consultations between the parties The intergovernmental negotiations that took place between July 2014 and March 2015, with the support of the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, at the request of the The United Nations.
The Sendai Framework is the successor to the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Increasing the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. The Hyogo Framework for Action was designed to give further impetus to global work on the International Framework for Action of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction of 1989 and the Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World: Guidelines for Natural disaster prevention, disaster preparedness and mitigation, adopted in 1994, as well as its Plan of Action and the 1999 International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.
The Sendai Framework was The successor instrument to the 2005-2015 Hyogo Framework for Action: Increasing the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. The Hyogo Framework for Action was designed to give further impetus to global work on the International Framework for Action of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction of 1989 and the Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World: Guidelines for Natural disaster prevention, disaster preparedness and mitigation, adopted in 1994, as well as its Plan of Action and the 1999 International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.
The Sendai Framework is based on elements that ensure the continuity of the work of States and other stakeholders in relation to the Hyogo Framework for Action and presents a number of innovations that were requested during consultations and negotiations. Many commentators have pointed out that the most important changes are the marked emphasis on disaster risk management rather than on disaster management, the definition of seven global targets, the reduction of disaster risk as an expected result, a focused objective Avoiding new risks, reducing existing risks and enhancing resilience, as well as a set of guiding principles, including the primary responsibility of States to prevent and reduce disaster risk, and the participation of society as a whole. All the institutions of the State. In addition, the scope of disaster risk reduction has expanded considerably to focus on both natural and man-made threats, as well as related environmental, technological and biological threats and risks. Health resilience is fully promoted.
The Sendai Framework also expresses the following: the need to better understand disaster risk in all its dimensions related to exposure, vulnerability and threat characteristics; The strengthening of disaster risk governance, including national platforms; Accountability in disaster risk management; The need to prepare to "rebuild better"; The recognition of the parties concerned and their functions; The mobilization of risk-taking investments to prevent the emergence of new risks; The resilience of health infrastructure, cultural heritage and workplaces; The strengthening of international cooperation and global working partnerships and the development of donor policies and risk-taking programs, including lending and financial support provided by international financial institutions. In addition, the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and regional platforms for disaster risk reduction are clearly recognized as mechanisms that reinforce consistency among agendas, monitoring and periodic reviews in support of The United Nations.
UNISDR has been tasked with assisting in the implementation, monitoring and revision of the Sendai Framework.

3- ADDIS ABEBA AGENDA OF ACTION.
The 193 UN member states present at the Third International Conference on Financing for Development that concluded in 2015 in the Ethiopian capital have reached a "historic agreement", according to the United Nations, to generate resources that guarantee the future development agenda Sustainable global.
"It is a fundamental step in building a sustainable future for all. It provides a global framework for the financing of sustainable development," UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said in a statement released by the UN Conference. UN, at that time in 2015.
Funding through public-private partnerships and the improvement of their national collection systems are some of the measures contained in the Addis Ababa Development Agenda, although the creation of a UN agency dedicated to Fight against tax fraud, which has been the main stumbling block of the negotiations.
The document, signed after months of negotiations, contains more than 100 concrete initiatives to improve the funding sources of emerging countries and will be the basis for securing funding for the Sustainable Development Goals (MDGs), which will consist of several targets, The eradication of poverty, improved access to water and sanitation or the fight against climate change. All of them will replace the hitherto existing Millennium Development Goals to contribute to sustainable global development.
The Addis Ababa Agenda includes measures to expand the revenue base, improve tax collection and combat tax evasion and illicit financial flows, according to the Conference communiqué.

No to the agency against tax fraud
Several NGOs have complained that developed countries have not finally agreed to the creation of an agency to combat tax fraud. Among them, Action Aid and the Financial Transparency Coalition have emphasized that this new entity would give all countries the same representation and, above all, allow developing countries to propose reforms that favor their interests, since the amount Is evaded every year exceeds the development aid they receive.
At the conference, rich countries have also pledged to keep their development aid at 0.7% or increase them in cases such as the European Union, which promises to allocate 0.2% of its gross national income by 2030.
In sectors requiring greater investment - energy, transport, water and sanitation - international cooperation agreements have been reached to mobilize resources, with mechanisms such as the new Global Infrastructure Forum. A new social pact has also been agreed on in favor of vulnerable groups and taxing harmful substances such as tobacco to discourage them and increase national resources.
Ultimately, according to the document, "each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development and the role of national policies and development strategies can not be overstated."

4-NEW URBAN AGENDA.

The New Urban Agenda is the final document resulting from the agreement at the Habitat III conference held in October 2016 in Quito, Ecuador. It was a guide to guide city development efforts for a wide range of actors (states, urban and regional leaders, donors, United Nations programs and civil society) for the next 20 years. This agenda laid the groundwork for policies and strategies that will extend and impact in the long term. Based on the ideas discussed in the global dialogue prior to the October 2016 summit, it was finally Habitat III (comprising 10 United Nations member states) and the Secretariat that drafted the first draft. The terms were negotiated by the member states in Habitat III to reach an agreement in Quito.

Who wrote the New Urban Agenda?
The preparatory process for Quito influenced the formulation of the New Urban Agenda, which was presented as a "zero draft" in May 2016 and began four months of political negotiations on the new strategy.
These preparations included a series of official and semi-official events that included regional meetings, thematic meetings and the "Urban Thinker Campuses" for stakeholders. In addition, from August 2015 to February 2016, a group of 200 experts, known as "political units", generated some important recommendations for the preparation and implementation of the New Urban Agenda. These recommendations were also open to public comment.
What was the previous urban agenda?
The current United Nations approach to global urbanization is contained in the Habitat Agenda: the Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements, the final document prepared at the Habitat II conference in 1996. It called for ensuring adequate housing for all and for creating settlements Human rights in an increasingly urbanized world.
Since then, more than 100 countries have incorporated in their constitutions the right to adequate housing, which is a great success for the Habitat Agenda. On the other hand, however, international cooperation organizations and bilateral development agencies have systematically reduced their investments in cities and cut back on their urban development programs. These trends have conditioned the full implementation of the Habitat Agenda.

What has been the legacy of this previous agenda?
The Habitat Agenda has had a wide influence within the United Nations in the last two decades. Its main provisions were included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of 2000 with the goal of achieving "cities without informal settlements". The priorities of the MDGs to eradicate poverty and ensure environmental sustainability are strongly linked to the Habitat Agenda.
Since then, major United Nations meetings on sustainable development, such as the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 and Rio +20 in 2012, have consistently reaffirmed the basic tenets of the Habitat Agenda.
Current discussions on the Post-2015 Development Agenda are also based on the principles of the Habitat Agenda. For example, the report titled "The Future We Want for All" of 2012, prepared by a UN working group for the Secretary-General, stressed that by 2050, "70 percent of the world's population will be living in cities . "The report also highlighted the development challenges inherent in rapid urbanization.
Finally, the post-MDG development agenda, the Sustainable Development Goals (ODS), will also include notorious references to the spirit of the Habitat Agenda. Objective 11 of the ODS, which is expected to focus on the urban, can also be considered as the development of an idea originally elaborated in the Habitat Agenda.

What does the New Urban Agenda cover?
The New Urban Agenda, which comes after the materialization of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, seeks to create a reciprocal reinforcement link between urbanization and development. The idea is that these two concepts become parallel vehicles for sustainable development.
The agenda tries to offer guidelines on a series of "enablers" that can consolidate the relationship between urbanization and sustainable development. This includes, on the one hand, "development facilitators" who seek to generate global growth from the multiple and often chaotic forces of urbanization by creating conditions for system-wide improvement in urban-national policies; Laws, institutions and systems of government; And the sprawling urban economy.
Operational facilitators, on the other hand, are aimed at promoting sustainable urban development - or simply making it possible to do it first. Its application translates into better results in land use patterns, in the formation of cities and the management of resources. The New Urban Agenda highlights three operational facilitators, who are jointly being called by UN-HABITAT managers as a three-pronged approach: local tax systems, urban planning, and basic services and infrastructure.

What are the priorities of the New Urban Agenda?
Beyond the specific technocratic solutions of the economy and the government, several central ideas formed the ideological foundations of the New Urban Agenda. Democratic development and respect for human rights will be prominent, for example, as will the relationship between the environment and urbanization.
It also almost certainly includes a meaningful approach to equity in the context of globalization, as well as how to ensure the safety of all those living in urban areas of any gender and age. Risk reduction and urban resilience will also play a prominent role. Particular emphasis is also placed on finding ways to establish global monitoring mechanisms to follow up on all these issues and concerns.
Meanwhile, the main themes of the Habitat Agenda - adequate housing and sustainable human settlements - are still on the table, while the number of people living in slums continues to grow. In fact, in the time that has passed since the Habitat Agenda was approved, the world has become mostly urban, taking on even greater importance the New Urban Agenda.
It is also increasingly recognized that cities have become megaregions, urban corridors and city-regions whose economic, social, and political geographies challenge traditional conceptions of "city." The New Urban Agenda was forced to address these trends in urbanization, recognizing that cities and metropolitan areas are the main drivers of national economies.

Is the New Urban Agenda an agreement binding for member states?
No. As an "agenda" it provides guidance to the governments of national states, regional and city authorities, civil society, foundations, NGOs, academic researchers and United Nations agencies in their positions regarding cities, urbanization and Sustainable development. But guidelines are not binding.
This mechanism differs, for example, from the climate negotiations held in December 2015 in Paris, which aimed to produce a legally binding agreement.

3-CONCLUSIONS

The adoption of Agenda 2030 marks an unprecedented commitment on the part of the international community to take action at all levels and across borders to respond to global challenges and direct resources towards a socially and environmentally sustainable and resilient development path. The pillars of the Agenda - the Sustainable Development Goals (ODS), the Sendai Framework for Action, the Addis Ababa Agenda for Action and the New Urban Agenda - provide a coherent, coherent and holistic framework.
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 was adopted at the third United Nations World Conference in Sendai, Japan, on 18 March 2015. This is the result of a series of consultations between the parties The intergovernmental negotiations that took place between July 2014 and March 2015, with the support of the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, at the request of the The United Nations.
The Addis Ababa Agenda includes measures to expand the revenue base, improve tax collection and combat tax evasion and illicit financial flows, according to the Conference communiqué.

The document, signed after months of negotiations, contains more than 100 concrete initiatives to improve the funding sources of emerging countries and will be the basis for securing funding for the Sustainable Development Goals (MDGs), which will consist of several targets, The eradication of poverty, improved access to water and sanitation or the fight against climate change. All of them will replace the hitherto existing Millennium Development Goals to contribute to sustainable global development.
The New Urban Agenda, which comes after the materialization of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, seeks to create a reciprocal reinforcement link between urbanization and development. The idea is that these two concepts become parallel vehicles for sustainable development.
The agenda tries to offer guidelines on a series of "enablers" that can consolidate the relationship between urbanization and sustainable development. This includes, on the one hand, "development facilitators" who seek to generate global growth from the multiple and often chaotic forces of urbanization by creating conditions for system-wide improvement in urban-national policies; Laws, institutions and systems of government; And the sprawling urban economy.
The man, in pursuit of his development and modernization of himself and his environment, although he achieved many advances for Humanity in Technology, Science and Innovation, undermined Nature and compromised values, from the point of view of Ethics and Of praxis as well, since resources are being depleted, given its extensive exploitation and population increase.
Climate change, poverty (which will increase with it), urbanism and all the phenomena cited in this work, deserve a joint analysis by all international, national, provincial and municipal organizations, academia, NGOs, and groups Interdisciplinary, such as Civil Society in general; So that through international cooperation and a real worldview of the structural situation, the necessary measures can be taken, leading to efficient and efficient decision-making on the issue under study.
The correct policies are achieved through a field study and structured analysis of reality, through, for example, formal statistics and a follow-up of the phenomena, such as after the measures were implemented. Good will are essential in both bilateral and multilateral agreements, to achieve a true union among peoples, for the common good of the global community.
The future of our descendants is at stake, and not only of them, but of ourselves, in the present, and in our ideals. To give meaning to this life and Our Existence, let us do good for good.

[1] UN. United Nations. Website: http://www.un.org/en/ga/president/65/issues/sustdev.shtml. Date of Consultation of the Site: 4/2/2017.

 

[2] "The Keys to Unlocking Sustainable Development Goals?". Community DiploFoundation, Switzerland. Platform of Geneva. Website: https: //www.diplomacy.edu/calendar/webinar-standardisation-key-unlo .... Date of Consultation of the Website: 2/2/2017.

 

[3] Óp. Cit. 1

[4] White Helmets, Accessibility Tool of Argentine Chancellery. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Website: http: //cascosblancos.gob.ar/en/marco-de-sendai-para-la-reduccion-de .... Date of Consultation of the Site: 4/2/2017. Cascos Blancos is the agency of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship of the Argentine Republic in charge of designing and executing international humanitarian assistance. It develops its activities - guided by the principle of non-indifference among States - through a working model based on cooperation, solidarity and community participation. It is entirely civil and relies on a body of national and international volunteers.

This Argentina Initiative acts at the request of the affected State or ...

Since its creation in 1994, White Helmets has developed more than 283 humanitarian assistance missions on all 5 continents.

It has a network of bilateral and multilateral international cooperation links through which it coordinates the immediate response to socio-natural disasters, acts in rehabilitation, reconstruction and development, and promotes prevention and risk management.

With 22 years of experience and respect for international law and human rights, it has become a State policy and a fundamental tool of Argentine foreign policy.

The White Helmets initiative was endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1994 (Res 49 / 139B) and by the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1995 (Res 1351 / XXV-0/95). As a result, it signed agreements, memoranda of understanding and other instruments of cooperation with various agencies of the International System, which shows the recognition that the White Helmets Commission has around the world. The last positive evaluation resolution of the United Nations is December 10, 2015.

 

 

[5] Óp. Cit 4.

[6] Óp. Cit.4.

[7] "Historical Agreement to finance the New Development Agenda". Journal "El Pais". Website: http: //elpais.com/elpais/2015/07/16/planeta_futuro/1437040088_87497 .... Date of Consultation of the Site: 5/2/2017.

[8] Op. Cit. 7.

[9] Op. Cit. 7.

[10] Op. Cit. 7.

[11] "What is the New Urban Agenda"? Website: http: //citiscope.org/habitatIII/explainer/2015/06/que-es-la-nueva-a .... Date of Consultation of the Site: 5/2/2017.

[12] Óp. Cit. 11.

[13] Óp. Cit. eleven.

[14] Op. Cit. eleven.

[15] Op. Cit. 11.

[16] Op. eleven.

[17] Op. Cit. eleven.

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