IPv6 in Uruguay
In Uruguay there has been a good development of Internet, ANTEL
, the state ISP, has provided an extended infrastructure within all the territory.
The Regulatory Authority in Telecommunications, the URSEC
, regulates and controls the telecommunication and postal services since 2001. (The telecommunications in Uruguay is not completely privatized). Its activities include safeguard the universal access to the services, the promotion of competence, the taxes fixing, the control of persistent monopolistic activities and the protection of the user’s rights.
ANTEL, the state telecommunications operator, maintains fixed line monopoly provision; because of changes in the telecom sector, including introduction of competition for mobile, evolving technologies, convergence and the responsibilities given to URSEC around spectrum licensing for broadcasting, there's an increasing need for improving URSEC’s communication practices in support of a range of civil society stakeholders – consumers, users and citizens.
IPv6 deployment in Uruguay
Although the IPv6 deployment has important advances in the academic sector, the business field has not move forward to adopt IPv6, showing the same symptoms of the Latin American region.
, Uruguayan academic network, and registry of the Uruguayan ccTLD, dot .UY, a not for profit educational organization, transit and content provider, began to experiment with IPv6 in the year 2001, as the uruguayan academic network (RAU). The services they currently use are DNS and HTTP. They adopted the new version of IP motivated for studying, evaluating and experimenting emergent technologies, and as they are a relevant entity related to ICTs in the country, is a way to promote it. Then, with the creation of the RedCLARA (regional academic network), the RAU connected to an advanced academic networks with IPv4 and IPv6 native, in 2005. They allocated an IPv6 prefix /32. The domain UY is available via IPv6, but very few domains are using this protocol. The implementation is through the scheme of dual-stack.
The IPv6 adoption has been a challenge for the institution, specially for the costs of upgrading the communications equipment capable of supporting IPv6 in the network, and sometimes they feel discourage for the lack of IPv6 demand by the users, and there are few people trained in IPv6 of the staff. The entity will face the IPv4 exhaustion with the transition to IPv6.
In 2006-2007 ANTEL updated its entire backbone to have IPv6 ready, and recently they began to offer "beta" services with IPv6 to its large customers. Although there have been efforts in upgrading the infrastructure to IPv6, there should be policies to make IPv6 appealing to the final user and initiatives from government to offer kind of subsides for equipment acquisition by the private sector . The IPv6 National Task Force (UY6TF
), has been working to promote IPv6 and achieve the regional goal of an IPv6 massive adoption, the SECIU/RAU is one of its formers. For this purpose the UY6TF jointly with LACNIC, the Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry, based in Uruguay, and other national Enterprises and Telco. professionals, organized in July 2008 an IPv6 workshop, which convened more than 80 Uruguayan technicians.
URSEC, the regulatory Authority in Telecommunications, has not adopted yet IPv6 for its services, some causes are the small size of the entity and the lack of qualified human resources. They remarked that the biggest challenge for the Uruguayan market in relation with IPv6 trend is the need of a cultural change, so the companies and final users demand the new services that IPv6 comprises. They see the IPv6 transition as a step forward to the telecommunications advance for the country and an advantage in terms of development. In Uruguay there is not a policy in IPv6 transition yet, but the interest in different sectors has started to grow. URSEC recommend to make IPv6 appealing in terms of opportunities for new businesses and innovation for the private sector and seek for economic policies that encourage the companies to adopt IPv6 for their services.
Ipv6 in Brazil
Brazil has an Internet Steering Committee called CGbr. The CGbr is constituted by 21 members. Nine government officials , four NGOs members, four Private Sector representatives (ISPs and other private organizations ) one Internet scientist and three academia representatives.
All initiatives about Internet in Brazil , are leaded by this Committee. The initiatives so far, covers several points all stakeholders should be concerned about Ipv6 deployment:
- Raise awareness on IPv6 deployment
- Make recommendations on technical issues related to IPv6
Federal government has demonstrated commitment to adopt IPv6 by making it mandatory
for federal governemnts nets to plan to support IPv6 , as well as making it mandatory that new aquisitions must buy only products and services that support IPv6.
Pv6 in Kenya
The Internet first became available in Kenya in 1993. Connection was through a service known as Gopher which offered a text based only access ,through international leased lines.
In 1994, The African Regional Centre for Computing (ARCC), an NGO based in Nairobi, Kenya, became the first web-based Internet service, provider ,through the first ever web based browser, Mosaic. They accomplished this with help from UK DFID and US NFS.
In 1995 Formnet, a commercial ISP was licensed and begun operation. They would lease analogue or digital lines from Kenya to the USA to access the internet backbone. As more and more people begun to use the internet, pressure for bandwidth was felt amongst the three ISP’s that were in operation, then.
At this point the Kenya Posts & Telecommunications Corporation (KPTC) now Telkom Kenya , realized that there was a need for an Internet access backbone in the country that would also bring down cost of access to the Internet for ISP’s and eventually to the consumers that would encourage more internet connection.
In 2000 the Kenya Internet Exchange (KIXP) an internet exchange point was started by Kenya Internet Service Providers in an attempt to cut their operating costs ‘keeping the local traffic, local’. On and on can be seen of internet growth in Kenya with hurdles ,monopoly here and there more . Most importantly, internet in Kenya has been on the steep rise, currently there are 3 million users connected to the internet in Kenya and still counting. (http://www.internetworldstats.com/af/ke.htm)
Kenya and IPv6
Kenya has taken a lead role in East Africa in demonstrating the need and urgency of this new protocol. Through Kenya Network Information Center (KeNIC), a public private partnership who’s mandate is to operate and manage the .KE domain ccTLD, Kenya has made a mile stone towards this effect.
§ In June 2008, Kenya Network Information Center (KeNIC) in conjuction with African Network Information Center (AfriNIC),organized an IPv6 workshop that brought together 200 techies from English speaking African countries.
§ In October 2008, Kenya joined the global IPv6 Forum
. A world wide consortium of leading Internet vendors, service providers and national research and education networks (NREN’s). Their mission is to promote IPv6 by creating awareness, creating a quality and secure New Generation Internet and promoting equitable access to knowledge and technology.
The forum is Chaired by Kenya's Ministry of Information and communication with KeNIC as the secretariat.
§ In November 2008, KeNIC in conjuction with the Association of Kenya Insurers (AKI) organised a successful workshop on IPv6 .in attendance were local IT techies and the business community from Insurance industry.
Through the above awareness creation process the Communication Commission of Kenya (CCK) and some local Internet Service Provider’s have already adopted the new protocol.
“KENIC is also working with universities to see whether they can start using the new protocol and we encouraging others to join in as well,” says the KeNIC administrative manager. Towards this end, he said, the taskforce was in the process of setting up a ‘test bed’ where different players in the industry can try out the new technology before they can implement it in their firms.
The experts in Information Technology sector have added their voice
. They are now urging the government to ensure that any packet-switching equipment that is imported into the country is compatible with the new addressing system dubbed Internet Protocol version six (IPv6).”
IPv6 Policy in Kenya
From one point of view, Kenya is on the right path as far as IPv6 is concerned, working diligently on creating awareness and need for IPv6, the constituted working group/task force on research and policy development has urged the policy makers to hasten the IPv6 policy making process.
IPv6 in Trinidad and Tobago
As at November 2008, there is very little usage of IPv6 in Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) is one of the Caribbean countries serviced by the Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC
) and per LACNIC statistics, only two blocks of IPv6 address space have been allocated to ISPs in T&T, one of which is being announced as a single aggregate in the IPv6 routing table.
There are at least 13 ISPs in T&T and only one small ISP currently announces IPv6. This reportedly is being done more from a purpose of establishing a presence and gaining some operational experience rather than from any immediate commercial objective. The largest ISP, the incumbent Telecommunications Services of Trinidad and Tobago (TSTT) with roughly 50% market share, reportediy has no IPv6 capability at present but has tentative plans to develop a v4 / v6 transition plan in 2009. With the penetration of Internet services in Trinidad and Tobago still being relatively low at 6.2 subscibers per 100 of population in 2007, it appears that ISPs feel confident in their current stocks of IPv4 space and do not feel the urgency of any imminent depletion.
At the University of the West Indies in Trinidad, it was reported that academic studies and experimentation with IPv6 form a part of the curriculum but not yet a part of the University's operations network. It was unclear when any transition to IPv6 would take place.
The Caribbean Telecommunications Union (CTU), a regional inter-governmental and multi-stakeholder organisation with headquarters in Port of Spain, Trinidad, has been involved for the past three years in regional policy development for Internet Governance. The CTU has partnered with LACNIC and the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN), the other registry servicing Caribbean countries, to raise awareness of the IPv4 / IPv6 transition issue and has been having some success in getting the government and local ISPs to advance formulation of their transition plans. The CTU has also recently modified hosting arrangements for its web site www.ctu.int, in part to make it accessible via IPv6.
IPv6 in Uganda
In the case of Uganda, the government doesn’t have a specific policy regarding transitioning to IPv6. The government and regulator are taking a “wait and see” approach. However in July 2008, the Ministry of ICT in partnership with ISOC, the African Network Information Center (AfriNIC
) and the East African Network Operators Group (EANOG
) organized a networking and IPv6 workshop in Kampala, Uganda. The purpose of the event was to sensitize ICT personnel in Ugandan government agencies to IPv6 and NOC best practices in preparation for the implementation of an E-Government project.
Nonetheless, the government does not hold any IP resource, yet it is rolling out a national data backbone. As things stand today, with no policy or plan in place to purchase this resource, from a public sector stand point, there is a clear disconnect, and it needs to be addressed.
Again in November 2008, AfriNIC conducted an IPv6 workshop in Kampala, open to anyone interested in understanding the management of internet number resources, requesting number resources from AfriNIC, understanding related policies and the policy development process, AfriNIC membership and how to efficiently use/interact with the AfriNIC whois database. The IPv6 module covered a practical introduction to the basics of IPv6, and how to setup v6 on various platforms/devices.
In response to the National IPv6 survey, on the whole there is limited awareness or perceived urgency to transition from IPv4 to v6. I have so far got feed back from the private sector and civil society that are both content providers and end users. The feed back from 2 respondents explains the current divide.
One respondent, a commercial entity, has not used IPv6 because of the lack of networks to connect to and in any case, has no current need for IPv6. The company staffs however attended IPv6 training, but didn’t find it very useful because they are not in a position to make use of what they learnt. The overall strategy regarding IPv6 is to wait and see how the situation develops.
One the other hand, another respondent, an NGO, has used IPv6 because they wanted it and they had access to it at no cost from the tunnel broker. The main challenge faced was in getting a native v6 connection and eventually turned it off because the tunnel kept going down with the VSAT timeouts. The organization had successfully participated in a v6 training session and set up a tunnel, however, the session the helped organize was not as successful because they had no network availability during the training. While their current IPv4 resources are good for another 4 years, they are already in the transition process and will seek to acquire another /48 next year.