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CULTURE AS A PROMOTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL PEACE. Fourth Part

A PLANET, AN OCEAN. Preserving the terrestrial and marine biodiversity of our planet is essential for our well-being. However, unsustainable harvesting techniques are a threat to animal and plant species. Technological advances, policies and financial resources alone are not enough to achieve the goal of sustainable development. We must change our way of thinking and acting. UNESCO is the driving force behind the Decade of the United Nations Education for Sustainable Development (HEDD, 2005-2014), which aims to mobilize educational resources worldwide to help design a more sustainable future. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) should enable us to address present and future global challenges in a constructive and creative way. In this way we will achieve more sustainable societies and better adapted to their environment. Climate change has important human and social consequences. More than 30 UNESCO programs in the fields of science, education, culture and communication contribute to research, education and the transmission of information on climate change. In addition, an attempt is made to understand the ethical implications of this phenomenon for present and future generations. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO) works to improve our relationship with the ocean by promoting research and dissemination of scientific knowledge, and through public education to understand these unprecedented environmental changes. The Commission is endeavoring to promote international cooperation with a view to increasing our knowledge of nature, the ocean and coastal areas and applying it to management, sustainable development, protection of the marine ecosystem and decision-making. Thanks to the support of the World Heritage Convention , the most impressive natural areas gain international recognition, as well as technical and financial assistance to address threats such as indiscriminate felling for crops, the introduction of exotic species and poaching. As part of global efforts to protect the different forms of cultural heritage, UNESCO adopted in 2001 the Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage. This international treaty sets out the ethical principles for the protection of the submerged cultural heritage, establishes a framework of collaboration between States and sets out a series of practical scientific rules for the conservation and research of this type of heritage. 7 SCIENCE AT THE SERVICE OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE. Advances in the different spheres of science enable us to find solutions to the new economic, social and environmental challenges and to promote sustainable development and greener societies. As no country is able to achieve sustainable development alone, international scientific cooperation contributes not only to the progress of knowledge but also to the building of peace. UNESCO advises countries in their investments in science, technology and innovation (STI), in the development of national science policies, in the reform of their scientific systems and in the strengthening of their systems of monitoring and evaluation of results at Through STI indicators and statistics that take into account national specificities. But scientific policies are not enough. Systems of education in science and engineering and research capacity should be consolidated so that countries can find solutions adapted to their own problems and strengthen their international presence in the different fields of science and technology. Bringing science to society and helping citizens better understand science to contribute to its development is fundamental to building societies in which individuals have the necessary knowledge to choose their professional, personal and political options in a relevant way, and So that they can participate in the exciting world of research. In addition, the indigenous wisdom gained after long and close interaction with nature serves to complement knowledge systems based on modern science. Science and technology empower societies and citizens, but they also have ethical implications. UNESCO works with its Member States to encourage informed decision-making in the use of science and technology, especially in the field of bioethics. Water is necessary for life. That is why their supply must be guaranteed in all communities of the world to ensure peace and sustainable development. Scientific understanding of the water cycle, its distribution and the characteristics of surface and ground aquifers, even at the urban level, will contribute to a rational management of fresh water, which will respond to human needs without harming the environment. Scientific study of the history of the Earth and its mineral resources, ecosystems and biodiversity, and human interaction with ecosystems are essential to help us understand how to manage our planet to ensure a peaceful and sustainable future. Referring to Fig. PREVENTION OF EXTREMISM Not enough to combat violent extremism: we must prevent it , and for this you need what is known as "power of persuasion" in its various forms, in order to prevent a threat that feeds on distorted interpretations of culture, hatred And ignorance. No one is born a violent extremist: violent extremists are made and encouraged. To tackle the radicalization process must begin with the human rights and the rule of law, dialogue beyond all differences, empowerment of all youth and all young people, and starting as soon as possible in the classroom. The Member States of UNESCO adopted a landmark decision (decision 197 EX / 46) in order to increase the capacity of UNESCO to support States in developing strategies to prevent violent extremism. UNESCO also has committed to implementing the Plan of Action of the Secretary - General of the United Nations to Prevent Violent Extremism , paying particular attention to several priorities directly related to the work of UNESCO: i) education, development of skills And facilitating employment; ii) empowering youth ; iii) the communication strategy, Internet and social media ; and iv) gender equality and empowerment of women. UNESCO empowers young people of both sexes to develop their potential as agents of positive change through a unique intersectoral work around the following lines: Education as an instrument to prevent violent extremism UNESCO seeks to provide support to countries for the implementation of education programs that contribute to increasing the resilience of young people to the messages of violent extremism and to promoting a positive sense of identity and belonging. This work is carried out within the framework of the initiative on education for global citizenship . Referring to Fig. Participation and empowerment of young people The UNESCO youth team focuses on creating an environment conducive to youth empowerment and democratic participation in order to help young people of both sexes have the opportunity to become active global citizens. Coalitions for the prevention of violent extremism in the media and on the Internet UNESCO is mobilizing a range of stakeholders, especially young people, policymakers, researchers and media representatives, to take effective action, both on the Internet and outside the Internet, to prevent and combat violent and violent extremism. Radicalization on the Internet. Celebrate cultural diversity UNESCO works to involve young people in the protection of heritage in all its forms and promoting cultural diversity in order to promote more equitable, inclusive and peaceful societies, through the campaign "Unite for heritage" (# Unite4Heritage) and educational programs on heritage and creativity

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