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Freedom of expression, data protection, algorithms and biometrics. A new rhetoric ?. Appointments at work in Spanish.
In the virtual world of which we are part, many times without even realizing it, we share and generate a great amount of information like never happened in the History of Humanity. Social Networks collect a large amount of data, without knowing exactly the users where they are housed, or if their treatment meets the minimum standards in data protection regulation.
There, values such as security vs. civil rights come into play: freedom of expression, right to privacy, privacy, data protection; As opposed to algorithms and biometric processes that collect data.
An algorithm consists of an ordered list of operations that have the purpose of finding the solution to a problem in mathematics, computer science and related disciplines.
For the mathematical and computational sciences, an algorithm is a list that, given an initial state and an input, proposes successive steps to arrive at a final state obtaining a solution
Today, we can unlock a smartphone and even buy applications and multimedia content, simply by supporting our finger on a reader with our fingerprint, or activate operating systems by visually capturing our face. Undoubtedly, the leap that in recent years has had the introduction of biometric data in everyday technologies, is an exponential scale.
'Biometry' is the process by which one seeks to recognize, authenticate and identify a person, based on their biological characteristics (DNA and blood), morphological (hand shape, fingerprint, fingerprint , Patterns of veins, face, iris, voice, and ears) or behavior (the way and posture when walking, signing, and even typing on the keyboard).
Let us note that, at present, this technology has become one of the most lucrative markets, since it is weighted as an infallible and "safe" technology. However, it is among the purposes of this report, to emphasize that biometrics is not free from dangers: here come into play an infinite number of factors that may end up making the system a tool capable of affecting human rights, in a worrying way in terms Of personal privacy.
Biometric data are not only used by private for-profit purposes, but States are now one of the main players with biometric databases of their citizens. Now, what are the safeguards that are taken to avoid manipulation and adulteration of such stored data? What type of guarantees should be established to ensure the integrity of the data obtained?
The report "The Identity We Can not Change. How Biometrics Affects Our Human Rights" was made and presented by the ADC Digital Area, with the objective of deepening the work begun in previous years in the field of biometrics.
At the beginning of 2015, ADC published its report "If we know each other more, we take better care of ourselves", focused on the analysis of biometrics policies in Argentina. This work was the first step of the organization in the study of surveillance technologies that operate based on the biological and behavioral characteristics of people, as well as shedding light on the main state system designed for this purpose: Federal Biometric Identification System for Security, known as SIBIOS.
This research report takes up the analysis initiated in previous years, in order to deepen the information and update it, in the light of recent advances in this area.
Throughout the report, the main problems in the field of biometrics are identified from a technological point of view, exploring the effects of surveillance on the behavior of people; As well as describing the current global debates around the technologies of people identification.
From now on, the Federal System of Biometric Identification for Security (SIBIOS) is working on time, where the analysis of its operation is resumed, indicating:
● what data is collected;
● how is your collection process;
● which bodies and provinces are currently part of the System;
● what technology is used;
● and the practical uses of the System.
Finally, the analysis concludes by weighing the use of technology for biometric identification with the current and potential violation of fundamental rights, in the case of continuing the implementation of this system as it is being carried out.
In order to obtain detailed and relevant information, the investigation included the use of requests for access to public information presented to the Ministry of Security, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Modernization (specifically the National Office of Information Technologies ) And the National Directorate for the Protection of Personal Data. These requests were crucial tools, not only to nurture research, but also to expose the transparency of the State in sensitive issues such as security and surveillance.
We invite you to read the full report: The identity we can not change. How biometrics affect our human rights.
ACM acronym for Association for Computing Machinery (Association of Computer Systems). It was founded in 1947 as the first scientific and educational society about Computing. It publishes several magazines and scientific journals related to the computer; Sponsors conferences in various areas of the field (mainly SIGGRAPH and SIGCOMM) and other events related to computer science such as the international ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest (ICPC). It publishes an extensive digital library2 and a reference of the literature of the computation. The ACM also offers insurance and other services to its members in the United States.
It has presence in more than 100 countries.
Code of Ethics of the ACM.
The Code includes 24 precepts expressed as statements of personal responsibility, identifies the elements of such commitment, while addressing many of the aspects that professionals will likely face in the future. The first part includes the fundamental ethical considerations, the second part deals with reflections on professional conduct, the third part corresponds to people who have a leadership role, and the fourth part deals with the principles that involve compliance with this code. The code is complemented by a series of Guides, which provide explanations to help members deal with the different topics contained in the Code, these are intended to serve as a basis for ethical decision making in professional behavior, and may also Serve as a basis for judging the circumstances of a formal complaint related to breach of professional ethics standards. Although no mention is made of informatics in the section of moral precepts, the code is concerned with how these fundamental mandates apply to individual behavior as a professional in computing, mandates are expressed in a general way to show that the principles that are applied To computer ethics are derived from more general ethical principles.
Within the precepts of the ACM code are those related to general moral precepts, those of more specific professional responsibilities, those of the organizational leadership obligations, and the precepts in accordance with the code.
Balancing and balancing these values is the challenge. Applying reasonable criteria, according to good practices, ethical rules and constitutional guarantees, as well as international human rights treaties, incorporated in each country's legal system (including an effective and efficient law on the protection of personal data). The transparency in the collection of information by public and private entities, is the challenge that the mimas have with the users, the citizens; The sovereigns of each nation-state, and in the global community.
The humanization of Tics should never be neglected, on the contrary: the more technified society advances, it must be accompanied by social awareness and a legal system where social demands reflect this issue.
I hope that these kinds of questions can materialize, not only in theory, but in praxis; And that the algorithms do not define our personal and work life, if they improve it, as a biometric system well applied for safety prevention. The legislative technique must adapt to this new digital environment that calls us to an urgent change.
Author. Attorney Romina Florencia Cabrera. UNLP-UBA-USAL