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CULTURE AS A PROMOTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL PEACE. Fifth Part

SCIENCE AT THE SERVICE OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE.

Advances in the different spheres of science enable us to find solutions to the new economic, social and environmental challenges and to promote sustainable development and greener societies. As no country is able to achieve sustainable development alone, international scientific cooperation contributes not only to the progress of knowledge but also to the building of peace.

UNESCO advises countries in their investments in science, technology and innovation (STI), in the development of national science policies, in the reform of their scientific systems and in the strengthening of their systems of monitoring and evaluation of results at Through STI indicators and statistics that take into account national specificities.

But scientific policies are not enough. Systems of education in science and engineering and research capacity should be consolidated so that countries can find solutions adapted to their own problems and strengthen their international presence in the different fields of science and technology.

Bringing science to society and helping citizens better understand science to contribute to its development is fundamental to building societies in which individuals have the necessary knowledge to choose their professional, personal and political options in a relevant way, and So that they can participate in the exciting world of research. In addition, the indigenous wisdom gained after long and close interaction with nature serves to complement knowledge systems based on modern science.

Science and technology empower societies and citizens, but they also have ethical implications. UNESCO works with its Member States to encourage informed decision-making in the use of science and technology, especially in the field of bioethics.

Water is necessary for life. That is why their supply must be guaranteed in all communities of the world to ensure peace and sustainable development. Scientific understanding of the water cycle, its distribution and the characteristics of surface and ground aquifers, even at the urban level, will contribute to a rational management of fresh water, which will respond to human needs without harming the environment.

Scientific study of the history of the Earth and its mineral resources, ecosystems and biodiversity, and human interaction with ecosystems are essential to help us understand how to manage our planet to ensure a peaceful and sustainable future. Referring to Fig.

PREVENTION OF EXTREMISM

Not enough to combat violent extremism: we must prevent it , and for this you need what is known as "power of persuasion" in its various forms, in order to prevent a threat that feeds on distorted interpretations of culture, hatred And ignorance. No one is born a violent extremist: violent extremists are made and encouraged. To tackle the radicalization process must begin with the human rights and the rule of law, dialogue beyond all differences, empowerment of all youth and all young people, and starting as soon as possible in the classroom.

The Member States of UNESCO adopted a landmark decision (decision 197 EX / 46) in order to increase the capacity of UNESCO to support States in developing strategies to prevent violent extremism. UNESCO also has committed to implementing the Plan of Action of the Secretary - General of the United Nations to Prevent Violent Extremism , paying particular attention to several priorities directly related to the work of UNESCO: i) education, development of skills And facilitating employment; ii) empowering youth ; iii) the communication strategy, Internet and social media ; and iv) gender equality and empowerment of women.

UNESCO empowers young people of both sexes to develop their potential as agents of positive change through a unique intersectoral work around the following lines:

Education as an instrument to prevent violent extremism

UNESCO seeks to provide support to countries for the implementation of education programs that contribute to increasing the resilience of young people to the messages of violent extremism and to promoting a positive sense of identity and belonging. This work is carried out within the framework of the initiative on education for global citizenship . Referring to Fig.

Participation and empowerment of young people

The UNESCO youth team focuses on creating an environment conducive to youth empowerment and democratic participation in order to help young people of both sexes have the opportunity to become active global citizens.

Coalitions for the prevention of violent extremism in the media and on the Internet

UNESCO is mobilizing a range of stakeholders, especially young people, policymakers, researchers and media representatives, to take effective action, both on the Internet and outside the Internet, to prevent and combat violent and violent extremism. Radicalization on the Internet.

Celebrate cultural diversity

UNESCO works to involve young people in the protection of heritage in all its forms and promoting cultural diversity in order to promote more equitable, inclusive and peaceful societies, through the campaign "Unite for heritage" (# Unite4Heritage) and educational programs on heritage and creativity .

HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE INTER-AMERICAN SYSTEM. ECOSOC. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS.

Contemporary International Public Law imposes on States obligations in the field of human rights, which go beyond the conventional ties that they have acquired by virtue of their sovereign will to ratify or accede to international treaties. The most important principles and rules relating to the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms form part, for present international law, of "erga omnes" obligations which all States must respect. 10

The Economic and Social Council, one of the principal organs of the United Nations, has among its functions the initial task of making recommendations for the purpose of promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and the effectiveness of such rights And freedoms. Article 68 of the Charter of the United Nations has set the master key by which the Economic and Social Council has opened the door to the protection of human rights: ECOSOC is empowered to create performance commissions Of its functions. Thus, shortly after its activities, the Economic and Social Council created the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in 1946. The initial function of the Commission on Human Rights (whose first president was the Frenchman René Cassin) consisted in the preparation of a draft Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The work of the members of the Commission encountered the initial difficulty of the different ideological positions within it. The training process carried out by the Commission on Human Rights concluded in a proposal to the General Assembly, which approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on December 10, 1948, by 48 votes in favor, 8 abstentions, 2 absentees and No vote against. For its part, at the regional level, the Organization of American States was born from the IX Inter-American Conference, held in Bogotá, Colombia. The original Charter of the OAS did not abound in norms on the protection of the people, "... it had very few human rights provisions, and all were written in very general terms ...". At the same IX Inter-American Conference, the participating States adopted the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. Although it was intended in 1948 to approve a treaty, differences of opinion among States could only accept a Declaration. eleven

The international community, represented in the Organization of the United Nations and in the Organization of American States, began to take the first steps of a progressive and irreversible process, towards the adoption of standards for international protection of human rights, creation Of legal obligations, the consecration of international norms, and the establishment of organs for the substantiation of formalities or cases, when those fundamental rights and freedoms are violated, trying to find reparation for the damage caused. 12

CONTENTS OF BOTH DECLARATIONS

They are highly similar content of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man , and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These congruences can be based on two facts: First, contemporary child and have been adopted few months apart; and secondly, international law was still imbued with the UN High Eurocentric and Western content. : It is therefore not surprising that several of the discussions that took a corporal at the time of the adoption of one of them, have been repeated at the time of the approval of the other. Still, I will point Que hay Some Differences Along the present paragraph. The American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man and contemporary of the United Nations,limited to enunciate a series of Rights of Individuals States are obligated one BOUND AND prot. No define what human rights nor proceed to the creation of organs of guardianship, or mechanisms for the defense of Content Rights them. The two statements, enshrine the rights to life, liberty and security of persons; the recognition of the legal personality; The right to equality before the law and unless discrimination in the enjoyment of human rights enshrined; The right to religious freedom and worship; the right to nationality; Right to freedom of investigation, of opinion and expression; Right to protection of honor, personal reputation,privacy, and inviolability of the home and correspondence; Constitute and be protected for familia18; the right to property; Right to Protection of Motherhood and Childhood; The right of residence and movement; and the right of asylum. 13

The What rights have to do with the administration of justice and guarantees in processes, have Expresses consecration of two statements, which include the right to justice or equality before the law; Protection against arbitrary detention and the presumption of innocence. Political rights, also are developed; Thus we find the right to vote and participation in government;And the rights of peaceful assembly and association. Human rights under the Labor and Social Relations also are contemplated: the right to work, fair remuneration A, to rest and use of leisure time; and enjoy the benefits of social security to protect them because of unemployment,old age or disability. Also, the two statements enshrine the right to preservation of Health and Social Welfare; The right to education; and enjoy the benefits of culture. Now we shall see, some specific features Differences or each of the two statements: The resolution gives birth to the American Declaration states that "... repeatedly, American States have recognized that ESSENTIALS The Rights of Man without NACEN the fact that nationals of a particular State Sino are based upon attributes of the human person. This Affirmation, is significant, since, when considering a human Rights as inherent attributes of the person, make a barrier that no state can traversing,under any pretext or exceptional circumstance the American Declaration - As its name implies - has an entire chapter on the duties ;. Which run a Contemplate duties to society; to the children and parents; training; vote; obedience to the law; to serve the community and the nation; Security and Social Assistance; Paying taxes; t ork; and to refrain from political activities in Foreign Country. In this aspect m, the Universal Declaration only stated in Article 29 Any person who has duties of the Community. Finally, the American Declaration provides forthe right to petition the authorities, which is not displayed in the Universal Declaration mentioned.Regarding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, This part of the premise that states that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights; As a consequence f wave, enshrines the right to enjoy all rights established by sin discrimination Some no reason f mo condition. The Universal Declaration also explicitly contains the right of a Submitted without being a slavery or servitude; and The Right to Be submitted a no torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment; Also, it includes the right for Men and Women a knot, from the marriageable age. THEN seen the contents of the Universal and American Declarations,We spend one f · analyze their influence in other international instruments, as well as the protection mechanisms that arise from those. 14

Importantly , the American Convention on Human Rights mentions expresses the American Declaration, in its preamble (as mentioned above), but: In addition IN: Provisions on the rules of interpretation of the Pact of San José de Costa Rica , which expressly states that no provision of the Convention can be interpreted as meaning m of excluding or limiting the effect that the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man and "other international acts of the same nature.

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